Mini Reviews

Review of the Risk Factor of Osteoporosis in the Malaysian Population

Management of Osteoporotic Fractures

Osteoporotic patients have low density and weak bones, which are prone to fracture with slight force, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, patients admitted with non-traumatic fractures, especially elderly and postmenopausal women should be properly managed to avoid recurrent fractures. Bone mineral density (BMD) assessment should be carried out on these patients to determine their bone health status. Osteoporotic or osteopenic patients should then be informed about their bone condition, and an immediate follow-up arranged for them.

Polymeric Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System for Fracture Healing Treatment

Nanotechnology is a novel branch of science that leads to creation of new and improved devices and delivery systems. Nanoparticle drug delivery system can offer a number of advantages such as the ability to deliver a drug at low dosages in a controlled manner at the targeted site. Moreover, effective treatments given at low dosages are preferable compared to high dosages, which may cause toxicity. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) is important for bone development and regeneration. It has rapid infusion from the application site.

G-Protein Coupled Receptor as Target for Drugs : Understanding the Novel G-Protein Coupled Receptor 1

G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of integral membrane proteins which transduce a diverse array of extracel- lular signals. GPCRs activation can occur through interaction with G-proteins or G-protein-independent signalling. As nearly half of the current medicines target GPCRs, they serve as an important and profitable target for pharmaceutical research. Many GPCRs are  also linked to pathology, which make them a good drug target and an opportunity for drug discovery. G-Protein Coupled Receptor 1 (GPR1), is a GPCR with chemerin as the agonist.

Branched DNA: A Novel Technique for Molecular Diagnostics

Recently, there are increasing applications of molecular techniques for molecular diagnostics in bone studies. Bone is a mineralized tissue containing an abundant matrix, which makes RNA isolation difficult. The most common technique used for molecular diagnosis in bone disease is reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence amplification assay. Currently, there is an in-creasing use of the branched chain DNA (bDNA) signal amplification technology. This article provides an overview of bDNA technolo-gy for molecular diagnostics in bone studies.

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